Wydawnictwo Medyczne Mediton
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the Polish Society of Audiology and Phoniatrics

 

Review articles

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Application of magnetic resonance in neurootology
Grażyna Tacikowska 1/
  • 1/ Światowe Centrum Słuchu Instytutu Fizjologii i Patologii Słuchu, Warszawa/Kajetany

The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed, due to its very high spatial resolution, not only to determine the cortical and subcortical representation of the vestibular system, but also its connections and interactions with other sensory systems. The author presents, based on the analysis of world literature, current knowledge about the organization of the central structures involved in the perception of balance, the correlation of perceptual and motor tasks in healthy subjects and the changes caused by damage of the peripheral and central
vestibular system.
Previous studies have estimated the following facts: a) in patients with acute unilateral vestibular lesion vestibular cortex shows spontaneous visual-vestibular activation-deactivation model similar to that in healthy subjects during unilateral vestibular stimulation. In the acute stage of the disease, the activity in the multisensory vestibular cortical and subcortical areas increases, but simultaneously it significantly decreases in the visual and somatosensory cortex areas; b) in patients with bilateral vestibular failure the activation-deactivation pattern shows a decrease both of activations and deactivations; c) patients with defective vestibular nuclei (in Wallenberg’s syndrome) fMRI shows no activation or significantly reduced activation in the contralateral hemisphere during caloric irrigation of the ear ipsilateral to the defective side, but the activation pattern in the ipsilateral hemisphere appears “normal”; d) in patients with a clinical downbeat nystagmus syndrome the activity is reduced in the region of the cerebellar tonsil and flocculus/paraflocculus bilaterally.

Otorynolaryngologia vol 13. no 1. Marchpages: from 1to 5
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